THE POTENTIAL OF THE RECURSE BASE
Mineral resources of Primorsky Krai (coal, metallic minerals, fabrication and contruction materials and others) are sufficient for dynamic social and economic development of this territory.
Fuel and energy resources
Fuel and energy resources on the territory of Primorsky Krai include hard, brown and coking coals, as well as peat.
About 100 coal deposits are known in Primorsky Krai.
The largest hard coal basins are the Partizansky Basin and the Razdolnensky Basin, the largest brown coal basin is the Uglovsky Basin, moreover there are a number of large brown coal deposits such as the Bikinsky, Pavlovsky, Skotovsky, Rakovsky deposits and others.As of 01.01.2006 balance coal reserves in Primorsky Krai amounted to 3.94 billion tonnes or 1.5% of all Russian resources,including proven reserves that total 2.48 billion tonnes, where 90.7% or 2.254 billion tonnes account for brown coal reserves.
Proven hard coal reserves total only 0.23 billion tonnes, of which coking coals of especially valuable rank «Zh» amout to 6.9 billion tonnes. About 46.6% of proven coal reserves are found in distributed fund of mineral resources of Primorsky Krai.
Fuel and energy system of Primorsky Krai uses the most of mined coals in this region. The brown coal share in the structure of solid fuel used in Primorsky Krai amounts to 82%.
Expansion of the raw material base of hard coals requires geological exploration in the Partizansky and Razdolnensky basins. Proven brown coal reserves allow production for extended period of time. The most prospective brown coal areas include Sredne-Bikinskaya, Verkhne-Bikinskaya and Orekhovskaya.
The territory of Primorsky Krai is characterized by rather large peat reserves. Only a small part of available reserves is being developed. Over recent years reevaluation of oil-and-gas prospects of the Krai both onshore and offshore of the Sea of Japan has been initiated.
Expected oil reserves total 10150 billion tonnes. Extended infrastructure of Primorsky Krai and its remoteness from oil producing regions allows to suggest with accuracy that even the development of small oil and gas deposits would be economically feasible.
On the territory of Primorsky Krai there is a number of deposits of ironstone, non-ferrous, rare, precious metals. On the observed territory a number of iron-ore areas can be distinguished: Ussuriysky, Olginsky, Prikhankaisky.
Concentrates derived from ore after enrichment can be used in blast-furnace processing. Open-pit mining of iron ore deposits can be performed.
The Krai is rich in precious metals deposits. About 60 tin deposits are known, predominately they are located in Kavalerovsky, Dalnegorsky and Krasnoarmeysky Districts.
About 15 polymetallic ore deposits that contain zink, lead, copper, silver, bismuth, rare-earth metals are situated in these districts. In Krasnoarmeysky and Pozharsky Districts there are several tungsten deposits. Besides tungsten these ores contain copper, silver, gold, bismuth and other precious metals.
In the northeast districts of Sikhote Alin several silver deposits were found.
More than 50 gold deposits are explored in Primorsky Krai.
There are gold-bearing deposits both in the south and in the north of Primorye. About 60% of all reserves of gold are situated in placer deposits along river valleys.
The territory of Primorsky Krai is rich in non-metallic minerals.
In Dalnegorsky District there is the Dalnegorsky boron deposit (datolitic, boron-containing ores) that is the largest in Russia. It is mined by the open pit and can ensure work of processing companies for 50 years.
Fluorspar is mined in Khorolsky District (the Voznesenovsky and Pogranichny deposits). Besides fluorspar the ores of this deposit contain rare metals.
Several phosphorite deposits are discovered in the shelf zone of the Sea of Japan.
In recent decades the deposits of porcelain stone were discovered in Primorye and are being mined. It is raw material for fine ceramics that is used by local porcelain factories. These are the Gusevskoye deposit (Khasansky District, in the basin of the Gryaznaya river), the Sergeyevskoye deposit (Partizansky District).
Primorsky Krai has large stocks of construction materials.
The territory of Primorsky Krai has large raw material resources for cement industry (district of Spassk). Furthermore, large limestone deposits for lime production are known in the areas of Spassk, Partizansk, Dalnegorsk, Nakhodka.
Primorsky Krai has great resources of building stone.
The largest deposits of building stone are Sinyaya gora (Artyom town), Orekhovskoe (Dalnerechensk), Kalinovskoe and Vishnevskoe (Nakhodka), Pridorozhnoe and Pionerskoe (Dalnegorsk).
Ashler stone is of great value. The Knorringskoye deposit of conglomerates (Siniy Gay, Chernigovsky district), the Vrangelevskoe deposit of granodiorites (is situated in the district of Vrangel Bay) and the Vladimiro-Aleksandrovskoe deposit of peridotite are discovered.
Significant reserves of sand and gravel mix are connected with quaternary alluvial deposits and rarer with marine deposits in the krai. In most cases the deposits coincide with valleys of large rivers such as the Razdolnaya river, the Ussuri river, the Partizanskaya river.
There are almost inexhaustible reserves of mortar sand and brick clay in the krai.
Prospects of Mineral-Raw Complex development
In Primorsky Krai there are many perspective areas for detection of new deposits of building stone related to intrusive, effusive and sedimentary rocks.
In the krai there are perspectives for detection of new large deposits of ashler stone as well as skarn- scheelite deposits in the Lermontovsky ore cluster.
In the krai there are particularly favourable perspectives for detection of new commercial ore deposits of precious metals (gold and silver).
As for new mineral resources in Primorye, there are perspectives to discover deposits of antimony, mercury, manganese, barite, kaolins and high-quality quartzites (at the moment Russia is short of high-quality quartzites) used for glass production.
The recent years have proved perspectives to discover deposits of such gemstonesas diamonds and corunds in placer deposits, primarily sapphires in the Vostretsovsky gold-field. There is an undiscovered Raduzhnoye deposit of noble opal within the Alchansky volcanic structure.
Over recent years reevaluation of oil-and-gas prospects of the Krai both onshore and offshore of the Sea of Japan has been initiated. Forecast assessment of the amount of oil ranges from 10 to 150 mln tons.
Discovered deposits of germanium are not developed, although these deposits are among the largest in the world.
The development of deposits of vermiculite, graphite, talc and some other mineral resources can be launched in the nearest future.
In the south of Primorye there is a deposit of high-quality therapeutic muds in the Ekspeditsia Bay.
Basis of mineral and raw materials can be extended due to geological prospecting and exploration in the areas where mineral resources can be found as well as due to engineering-ecological works aimed at detection of deposits that could be developed without causing damage to nature.
The development of natural reserves of raw materials has investment attractiveness.
Water resources of Primorsky Krai are presented with ground and surface waters.
Surface waters resources
The Ussuri River, Bolshaya Ussurka River, Bikin River, Razdolnaya River, Partizanskaya River comprise main surface waters resources.
According to the State water register the total surface water resources of the krai are:
- During a year of average dryness – 51.5 km3/year, 46.2 km3 of this amount is developed within the krai and 5.3 km3 comes from the People's Republic of China (PRC);
- During a low-water year 95% of water supply amounts to 29.3 km3/year, 26.5 of this volume develops on the territory of the krai, and 2.8 km3/year comes from the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Fresh water is one of the most important natural resources.
Based on the accepted standards water supply of the terrirory of the krai according to the amount of total potential surface waters resources is:
- Areas that are the most supplied with water are Pozharsky, Terneysky, Dalnerechensky municipal districts, Dalnerechensky city district;
- Areas that are supplied with surface waters are Krasnoarmeysky, Kirovsky municipal district, Lesozavodsky city district;
- Areas with relative surface waters supply are Anuchinsky, Khasansky, Partizansky, Lazovsky, Olginsky, Chuguevsky, Kavalerovsky municipal districts as well as Dalnegorsky, Ussurysky city districts;
- All the rest districts are not supplied with surface waters, among them are Khankaysky, Pogranichny, Khorolsky, Chernigovsky, Oktyabrsky, Mikhailovsky, Spassky, Nadezhdinsky, Shkotovsky, Yakovlevsky; Artyomovsky, Vladivostok, Arsenevsky, Spassk-Dalny city districts, Closed Administrative-Territorial Units of Bolshoi Kamen town and Fokino, Partizansky, Nakhodkinsky city districts.
In terms of costs for the construction of water intake facilities (water intake sites, reservoirs, water pipe-lines, power lines and roads within water supply routes, etc.) the most rational zone width of source's influencewas accepted as follows:
- Favourable – up to 10 km towards either side from the source,
- Relatively favourable – up to 30 km towards either side from the source,
- Unfavourable- more than 30 km.
The analysis of all parameters of water supply allowed to determine the conditions of water supply of the whole territory:
- Favourable terrirories are adjacent to the Ussuri river downstream from Kirov, the Bolshaya Ussurka river down from Vostretsovo, the Bikin river down from the mouth of the Sakhalinka river, the Samarga river down from Unty;
Relatively favourable territories are located along all the listed rivers at the distance of 10-30 km;
- The rest territories are unfavourable for centralized water supply without flow regulation and water transmission over distance of more than 30 km.
General total reserves and expected resources of fresh groundwater amount to 6067.17 thousand m3/day, of which 1509.04 thousand m3/day is approved.
Current drinking water demand in the krai comprises about 1500 thousand m3.
Distribution of groundwater resources on the territory of the krai is rather non-uniform.
Mainly the resources are concentrated in the central (1645.17 thousand m3/day) and northern part (3982.1 thousand m3/day) of the krai. In the south of Primorye where the majority of the population lives groundwater resources make up only 439.9 thousand m3/day.
On the territory of the krai there discovered 73 fresh groundwater deposits for utility and drinking water supply with total operating stock that constitutes 1509.04 thousand m3/day, 52 of them are deposits with reserves for industrial development totalling 764.46 thousand m3/day. Almost all groundwater deposits were discovered before 1992. Since 2002 fresh groundwater deposits have not been discovered.
The analysis of data regarding commercial reserves and groundwater production for the period from 1988 to the present moment testifies to the low degree of groundwater resources development during the whole period. Moreover, the amount of collected groundwater and its utilization for drinking and household uses decreases over the years.
Primorsky Krai is one of the unique objects on the territory of the Far East with exceptional diversity of mineral water types that are valuable in terms of treatment.
Carbonated cold-spring mineral waters, radon- and nitrogen-containing thermal waters, radon- and nitrogen-containing cold-spring waters are spread over the most of the krai covered with fold mountain ranges of Sikhote Alin.
Nitrogen mineral water and nitrogen- and methane-containing waters of high mineralization develop within the Western Coastal plain, in the intermontane and submontane troughs of fold mountain systems of Sikhote Alin and spurs of the Eastern Manchurian highlands. Furthermore, nitrogen mineral waters and nitrogen- and methane-containing waters of high mineralization are mapped along the coast, the most of them can be observed in the southern part of the krai’s area.
Many sources of carbonated cold-spring mineral waters contain such microcomponents as fluorine, bromine, manganese and others. Among carbonated waters the most widespread are hydro carbonated calcium-magnesium waters such as transbaikalian (darasunsky) narzan (Shmakovskaya group of springs), there are also waters of Borjomi type (“Lastochka” mineral water source), of Essentuki 4 type. Waters of several carbonated springs contain high concentration of silicic acid, ferrous iron and radon.
As for chemical composition, thermal springs are hydrocarbonate-sodium, more rarely sodium-calcium waters, subsaline siliceous waters. Thermal springs waters contain high concentration of fluorine, bromine, zink and molybdenum. According to chemical and gas composition thermal springs waters are similar to the waters of Kuldur in Khabarovsk Krai.
Expected resources of mineral medicinal waters are estimated to be 102.87 thousand m3/day. This amount includes: carbonated cold-spring waters – 6.243 thousand m3/day; nitrogen thermal waters– 0.967 thousand m3/day; nitrogen, nitrogen- and methane-containing waters of high mineralization – 95.66 thousand m3/day.
Mineral waters on the territory of the krai are used for treatment purposes and for bottling.
As of 01.01. 2014 total area of the land fund of Primorsky Krai comprises 16 mln. 467.3 thousand ha or 1% of the whole territory of the Russian Federation.
The prevailing category within the land fund is presented with forest fund lands covering more than 73% of the territory.
Agricultural lands occupy 11.4% of the krai's territory that testifies to the low agricultural development of the krai's land fund. Cropland accounts for 50% of agricultural lands, natural forage grassland accounts for about 44%.
Distribution of lands according to forms of ownership is presented in the table below.
It should be mentioned that according to a terrain type Primorsky Krai is mainly a mountainous country. Mountain ranges and their spurs, volcanic plateaus, ridges occupy more than 70% of its territory. Only one fifth of the territory is presented with low-lying areas and river valleys that can be used to some extent for urban planning development.
Primorsky krai is one of the regions with the richest forest resources in the Russian Federation.
Forests of Primorye are unique in terms of their richness and diversity. About 400 kinds of trees, shrubs and lianas grow there.
Forest resources are the most important wealth of Primorsky Krai. On the average the krai’s forest cover exceeds 80.0% (it varies from 92% in the northern regions to 6% in the south-western regions).
5.9 ha of forest falls on one inhabitant of Primorsky Krai, it exceeds the average level in Russia (0.2 ha) by far.
As of 1.01.2014 the extent of forest land on the territory of Primorsky Krai totals 13329.7 thousand ha.
Area covered with forest amounts to 12763.7 ha.
Forests of the forest fund cover the largest area. The area of forest reserve land totals 11955.1 thousand ha.
Forest lands cover 11637.2 thousand ha or 97.5% of the forest reserve land, non-forest lands cover 317.9 thousand ha or 2.5%.
The area of forest reserve lands covered with forest totals 11483.1 thousand ha.
Apart from forest reserve lands forests cover areas of specially protected natural reservations, military lands, agricultural lands, lands of settlements.
Forests of Primorsky Krai fulfill important economic functions, in addition they are the essential element of natural and ecologic basis. They are used for the purposes of recreation and tourism. Commercial forests in Primorsky Krai comprise 70.3%, protective forests amount to 29.7%.
Forest vegetation of Primorye is the most diverse in Russia.
In terms of species composition coniferous plantations prevail, they comprise more than 56%, hard-wooded broadleaved species amount to 23% and soft-wooded broadleaved species amount to 16%.
Total timber reserves comprise 1903.1 mln. m3.
Overall average annual increment of forest resources is 17.7 mln. m3.
The success of forestry depends on the quality of reforestation works that in its turn is directly related to the degree of development of nursery management and availability of high-quality planting material.
At the moment there are 10 nurseries on a regular basis over an area of 148 ha. Nevertheless it should be noted that it is more than two times less as compared to 1990. At that time there were 56 nurseries on a regular basis over 331 hectares. The annual demand for planting material for forest recovery and creation of all types of planted vegetation totals 50 mln. seedlings and 1 mln. saplings.
From the report on completed scientific and research work according to the government contract №2014-02 d/d 28.04. 2014. JSC Russian Institute of Urban Planning and Investment Development «Giprogor».